Norbert Frei was born in 1955 in Frankfurt and is now professor of modern and recent history at Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena. He was a scientific member of the Munich Institute of Contemporary History from 1979 to 1997. In 1985/86, he was Kennedy fellow at Harvard University, in 1995/96 fellow at the Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin. From 1997 to 2005, he was professor of modern and recent history at Ruhr University in Bochum. Numerous publications.